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                                                    "Construction Safety Equipment" 

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   Construction Safety

Nearly 6.5 million people work at approximately 252,000 construction sites across the nation on any given day. The fatal injury rate for the construction industry is higher than the national average in this category for all industries.

Potential hazards for workers in construction include:

  • Falls (from heights); Safety St. Louis
  • Trench collapse;
  • Scaffold collapse; Safety St. Louis
  • Electric shock and arc flash/arc blast;
  • Failure to use proper personal protective equipment; and Safety St. Louis
  • Repetitive motion injuries.

Hazards & Solutions

For construction, the 10 OSHA standards most frequently included in the agency's citations in FY 2004 were: Safety St. Louis

  1. Scaffolding Safety St. Louis
  2. Fall protection (scope, application, definitions)
  3. Excavations (general requirements)
  4. Ladders
  5. Head protection
  6. Excavations (requirements for protective systems)
  7. Hazard communication
  8. Fall protection (training requirements)
  9. Construction (general safety and health provisions) Safety St. Louis
  10. Electrical (wiring methods, design and protection) Safety St. Louis

Fall Protection

Hazard: Each year, falls consistently account for the greatest number of fatalities in the construction industry. A number of factors are often involved in falls, including unstable working surfaces, misuse or failure to use fall protection equipment and human error. Studies have shown that using guardrails, fall arrest systems, safety nets, covers and restraint systems can prevent many deaths and injuries from falls. Safety St. Louis

Solutions:

  • Consider using aerial lifts or elevated platforms to provide safer elevated working surfaces;
  • Erect guardrail systems with toeboards and warning lines or install control line systems to protect workers near the edges of floors and roofs;
  • Cover floor holes; and/or
  • Use safety net systems or personal fall arrest systems (body harness.)

 
Scaffolding

   Hazard: When scaffolds are not erected or used properly, fall hazards can occur. About 2.3 million construction workers frequently work on scaffolds. Protecting these workers from scaffold-related accidents would prevent an estimated 4,500 injuries and 50 fatalities each year. Safety St. Louis
Safety St. Louis
Solutions:

  • Scaffold must be sound, rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus four times the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. It must be erected on solid footing.
  • Unstable objects, such as barrels, boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks must not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
  • Scaffold must not be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under the supervision of a competent person.
  • Scaffold must be equipped with guardrails, midrails and toeboards.  Safety St. Louis
  • Scaffold accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs or ladders that are damaged or weakened from any cause must be immediately repaired or replaced.
  • Scaffold platforms must be tightly planked with scaffold plank grade material or equivalent.
  • A “competent person” must inspect the scaffolding and, at designated intervals, reinspect it.
  • Rigging on suspension scaffolds must be inspected by a competent person before each shift and after any occurrence that could affect structural integrity to ensure that all connections are tight and that no damage to the rigging has occurred since its last use.
  • Synthetic and natural rope used in suspension scaffolding must be protected from heat-producing sources.
  • Employees must be instructed about the hazards of using diagonal braces as fall protection.
  • Scaffold can be accessed by using ladders and stairwells.
  • Scaffolds must be at least 10 feet from electric power lines at all times.

 Ladders

Hazard: Ladders and stairways are another source of injuries and fatalities among construction workers. OSHA estimates that there are 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls on stairways and ladders used in construction. Nearly half of these injuries were serious enough to require time off the job.

Solutions: Safety St. Louis

  • Use the correct ladder for the task. Safety St. Louis
  • Have a competent person visually inspect a ladder before use for any defects such as:
    • Structural damage, split/bent side rails, broken or missing rungs/steps/cleats and missing or damaged safety devices;
    • Grease, dirt or other contaminants that could cause slips or falls;
    • Paint or stickers (except warning labels) that could hide possible defects.
  • Make sure that ladders are long enough to safely reach the work area.
  • Mark or tag (“Do Not Use”) damaged or defective ladders for repair or replacement, or destroy them immediately.
  • Never load ladders beyond the maximum intended load or beyond the manufacturer's rated capacity.
  • Be sure the load rating can support the weight of the user, including materials and tools.
  • Avoid using ladders with metallic components near electrical work and overhead power lines.

Stairways

Hazard: Slips, trips and falls on stairways are a major source of injuries and fatalities among construction workers.
Safety St. Louis
Solutions: Safety St. Louis

  • Stairway treads and walkways must be free of dangerous objects, debris and materials.
  • Slippery conditions on stairways and walkways must be corrected immediately.
  • Make sure that treads cover the entire step and landing.
  • Stairways having four or more risers or rising more than 30 inches must have at least one handrail.

Trenching

Hazard: Trench collapses cause dozens of fatalities and hundreds of injuries each year. Trenching deaths rose in 2003.
Safety St. Louis
Solutions: Safety St. Louis

  • Never enter an unprotected trench.
  • Always use a protective system for trenches feet deep or greater.
  • Employ a registered professional engineer to design a protective system for trenches 20 feet deep or greater.
  • Protective Systems:
    • Sloping to protect workers by cutting back the trench wall at an angle inclined away from the excavation not steeper than a height/depth ratio of 11 2 :1, according to the sloping requirements for the type of soil.
    • Shoring to protect workers by installing supports to prevent soil movement for trenches that do not exceed 20 feet in depth.
    • Shielding to protect workers by using trench boxes or other types of supports to prevent soil cave-ins.  Safety St. Louis
  • Always provide a way to exit a trench--such as a ladder, stairway or ramp--no more than 25 feet of lateral travel for employees in the trench.
  • Keep spoils at least two feet back from the edge of a trench.
  • Make sure that trenches are inspected by a competent person prior to entry and after any hazard-increasing event such as a rainstorm, vibrations or excessive surcharge loads.

SLOPING. Maximum allowable slopes for excavations less than 20 ft. (6.09 m) based on soil type and angle to the horizontal are as follows:

TABLE V:2-1. ALLOWABLE SLOPES

Soil type Height/Depth ratio Slope angle
Stable Rock
(granite or sandstone)
Vertical 90º
Type A
(clay)
3/4 :1 53º
Type B
(gravel, silt)
1:1 45º
Type C
(sand)
11/ 2:1 34º
Type A (short-term)
(For a maximum excavation depth of 12 ft.)
1/ 2:1 63º

Source: OSHA Technical Manual, Section V, Chap. 2, Excavations: Hazard Recognition in Trenching and Shoring (Jan. 1999).

                                            Crane & Hoist Safety


Many types of cranes, hoists, and rigging devices are used at [COMPANY] for lifting and
moving materials. [COMPANY]'s policy is to maintain a safe workplace for its employees;
therefore, it cannot be overemphasized that only qualified and licensed individuals shall operate
these devices. The safety rules and guidance in this chapter apply to all operations at
[COMPANY] that involve the use of cranes and hoists installed in or attached to buildings and
to all [COMPANY] employees, supplemental labor, and subcontractor personnel who use such
devices.
Responsibilities Safety St. Louis
Supervisors are responsible for: Safety St. Louis
• Ensuring that employees under their supervision receive the required training and are
certified and licensed to operate the cranes and hoists in their areas.
• Providing training for prospective crane and hoist operators. This training must be
conducted by a qualified, designated instructor who is a licensed crane and hoist operator
and a full-time [COMPANY] employee.
• Evaluating crane and hoist trainees using the Crane Safety Checklist and submitting the
Qualification Request Form to the Safety Office to obtain the operator's license.
• Ensuring that hoisting equipment is inspected and tested monthly by a responsible
individual and that rigging equipment is inspected annually.
Crane and Hoist Operators are responsible for: Safety St. Louis
• Operating hoisting equipment safely.
• Conducting functional tests prior to using the equipment.
• Selecting and using rigging equipment appropriately.
• Having a valid operator's license on their person while operating cranes or hoists.
• Participating in the medical certification program, as required.
Engineering/Maintenance/Operations Department is responsible for: Safety St. Louis
• Performing annual maintenance and inspection of all [COMPANY] cranes and hoists
that are not covered by a program with maintenance responsibility.
• Conducting periodic and special load tests of cranes and hoists.
• Maintaining written records of inspections and tests, and providing copies of all
inspections and test results to facility managers and building coordinators who have
cranes and hoists on file. Safety St. Louis
• Inspecting and load testing cranes and hoists following modification or extensive repairs
(e.g., a replaced cable or hook, or structural modification.)
• Scheduling a non-destructive test and inspection for crane and hoist hooks at the time of
the periodic load test, and testing and inspecting before use new replacement hooks and
other hooks suspected of having been overloaded. The evaluation, inspection, and testing
may include, but are not limited to visual, dye penetrant, and magnetic particle
techniques referenced in ASME B30.10 (Hooks, Inspection and Testing.)
• Maintaining all manuals for cranes and hoists in a central file for reference.
Safety Department is responsible for Safety St. Louis
• Conducting training for all Crane & Hoist Operators
• Issuing licenses to Crane and Hoist Operators Safety St. Louis
• Periodically verifying monthly test and inspection reports.
• Interpreting crane and hoist safety rules and standards.
Safe Operating Requirements
All workers who use any [COMPANY] crane or hoist shall have an operator's license. The
company issues licenses for authorized employees who have been specifically trained in crane
and hoist operations and equipment safety.
Crane and Hoist Operators
To be qualified as a Crane and Hoist Operator, the candidate shall have received hands-on
training from a licensed, qualified crane and hoist operator designated by the candidate's
supervisor. Upon successful completion of training, the licensed crane and hoist operator and
the candidate's supervisor will fill out and sign the Qualification Request Form and Crane Safety
Checklist and send them to the Safety Office for approval. The candidate will be issued a
license upon approval by the Safety Manager. Crane and Hoist Operators must renew their
license every three years by satisfying the requirements described above.
Crane and Hoist Safety Design Requirements
Following are the design requirements for cranes and hoists and their components:
• The design of all commercial cranes and hoists shall comply with the requirements of
ASME/ANSI B30 standards and Crane Manufacturer's Association of America standards
(CMAA-70 and CMAA-74). [COMPANY]-fabricated lifting equipment shall comply
with the requirements in Chapter 2.2 (Lifting Equipment) of Mechanical Engineering
Design Safety Standards (latest edition).
• All crane and hoist hooks shall have safety latches. Safety St. Louis
• Hooks shall not be painted (or re-painted) if the paint previously applied by the
manufacturer is worn.
• Crane pendants shall have an electrical disconnect switch or button to open the main-line
control circuit.
• Cranes and hoists shall have a main electrical disconnect switch. This switch shall be in a
separate box that is labeled with lockout capability.
• Crane bridges and hoist monorails shall be labeled on both sides with the maximum
capacity. Safety St. Louis
• Each hoist-hook block shall be labeled with the maximum hook capacity.
• Directional signs indicating N-W-S-E shall be displayed on the bridge underside, and a
corresponding directional label shall be placed on the pendant.
• A device such as an upper-limit switch or slip clutch shall be installed on all building
cranes and hoists. A lower-limit switch may be required when there is insufficient hoist
rope on the drum to reach the lowest point. Safety St. Louis
• All cab and remotely operated bridge cranes shall have a motion alarm to signal bridge
movement.
• All newly installed cranes and hoists, or those that have been extensively repaired or
rebuilt structurally, shall be load tested at 125% capacity prior to being placed into
service.
• If an overload device is installed, a load test to the adjusted setting is required.
• Personnel baskets and platforms suspended from any crane shall be designed in
accordance with the specifications in 29 CFR 1926.550(g).
General Safety Rules
Operators shall comply with the following rules while operating the cranes and hoists:
• Do not engage in any practice that will divert your attention while operating the crane. Safety St. Louis
• Respond to signals only from the person who is directing the lift, or any appointed signal
person. Obey a stop signal at all times, no matter who gives it.
• Do not move a load over people. People shall not be placed in jeopardy by being under a
suspended load. Also, do not work under a suspended load unless the load is supported
by blocks, jacks, or a solid footing that will safely support the entire weight. Have a crane
or hoist operator remain at the controls or lock open and tag the main electrical
disconnect switch.
• Ensure that the rated load capacity of a crane's bridge, individual hoist, or any sling or
fitting is not exceeded. Know the weight of the object being lifted or use a dynamometer
or load cell to determine the weight.
• Check that all controls are in the OFF position before closing the main-line disconnect
switch. Safety St. Louis
• If spring-loaded reels are provided to lift pendants clear off the work area, ease the
pendant up into the stop to prevent damaging the wire. Safety St. Louis
• Avoid side pulls. These can cause the hoist rope to slip out of the drum groove, damaging
the rope or destabilizing the crane or hoist.
• To prevent shock loading, avoid sudden stops or starts. Shock loading can occur when a
suspended load is accelerated or decelerated, and can overload the crane or hoist. When
completing an upward or downward motion, ease the load slowly to a stop.
Operation Rules
Pre-operational Test
At the start of each work shift, operators shall do the following steps before making lifts with
any crane or hoist:
1. Test the upper-limit switch. Slowly raise the unloaded hook block until the limit switch
trips.
2. Visually inspect the hook, load lines, trolley, and bridge as much as possible from the
operator's station; in most instances, this will be the floor of the building.
3. If provided, test the lower-limit switch.
4. Test all direction and speed controls for both bridge and trolley travel.
5. Test all bridge and trolley limit switches, where provided, if operation will bring the
equipment in close proximity to the limit switches. Safety St. Louis
6. Test the pendant emergency stop.
7. Test the hoist brake to verify there is no drift without a load. Safety St. Louis
8. If provided, test the bridge movement alarm.
9. Lock out and tag for repair any crane or hoist that fails any of the above tests.
Moving a Load
• Center the hook over the load to keep the cables from slipping out of the drum grooves
and overlapping, and to prevent the load from swinging when it is lifted. Inspect the drum
to verify that the cable is in the grooves.
• Use a tag line when loads must traverse long distances or must otherwise be controlled.
Manila rope may be used for tag lines.
• Plan and check the travel path to avoid personnel and obstructions.
• Lift the load only high enough to clear the tallest obstruction in the travel path.
• Start and stop slowly.
• Land the load when the move is finished. Choose a safe landing.
• Never leave suspended loads unattended. In an emergency where the crane or hoist has
become inoperative, if a load must be left suspended, barricade and post signs in the
surrounding area, under the load, and on all four sides. Lock open and tag the crane or
hoist's main electrical disconnect switch. Safety St. Louis
Parking a Crane or Hoist
• Remove all slings and accessories from the hook. Return the rigging device to the
designated storage racks.
• Raise the hook at least 2.1 m (7 ft) above the floor.
• Store the pendant away from aisles and work areas, or raise it at least 2.1 m (7 ft) above
the floor.
• Place the emergency stop switch (or push button) in the OFF position. Safety St. Louis
Rigging
General Rigging Safety Requirements
Only select rigging equipment that is in good condition. All rigging equipment shall be inspected
annually; defective equipment is to be removed from service and destroyed to prevent
inadvertent reuse. The load capacity limits shall be stamped or affixed to all rigging components.
Company Name policy requires a minimum safety factor of 5 to be maintained for wire
rope slings. The following types of slings shall be rejected or destroyed: Safety St. Louis
Nylon slings with
• Abnormal wear.
• Torn stitching.
• Broken or cut fibers.
• Discoloration or deterioration.
Wire-rope slings with
• Kinking, crushing, bird-caging, or other distortions.
• Evidence of heat damage.
• Cracks, deformation, or worn end attachments.
• Six randomly broken wires in a single rope lay. Safety St. Louis
• Three broken wires in one strand of rope.
• Hooks opened more than 15% at the throat.
• Hooks twisted sideways more than 10deg. from the plane of the unbent hook.
Alloy steel chain slings with
• Cracked, bent, or elongated links or components. Safety St. Louis
• Cracked hooks.
Shackles, eye bolts, turnbuckles, or other components that are damaged or deformed.
Rigging a Load
Do the following when rigging a load:
• Determine the weight of the load. Do not guess.
• Determine the proper size for slings and components.
• Do not use manila rope for rigging.
• Make sure that shackle pins and shouldered eye bolts are installed in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations.
• Make sure that ordinary (shoulderless) eye bolts are threaded in at least 1.5 times the bolt
diameter. Safety St. Louis
• Use safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) as a preferred substitute for eye bolts wherever
possible.
• Pad sharp edges to protect slings. Remember that machinery foundations or angle-iron
edges may not feel sharp to the touch but could cut into rigging when under several tons
of load. Wood, tire rubber, or other pliable materials may be suitable for padding.
• Do not use slings, eye bolts, shackles, or hooks that have been cut, welded, or brazed. Safety St. Louis
• Install wire-rope clips with the base only on the live end and the U-bolt only on the dead
end. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the spacing for each specific wire
size.
• Determine the center of gravity and balance the load before moving it.
• Initially lift the load only a few inches to test the rigging and balance.
Crane Overloading
Cranes or hoists shall not be loaded beyond their rated capacity for normal operations. Any crane
or hoist suspected of having been overloaded shall be removed from service by locking open and
tagging the main disconnect switch. Additionally, overloaded cranes shall be inspected, repaired,
load tested, and approved for use before being returned to service. Safety St. Louis
Working at Heights on Cranes or Hoists
Anyone conducting maintenance or repair on cranes or hoists at heights greater than 1.8 m (6 ft)
shall use fall protection. Fall protection should also be considered for heights less than 1.8 m.
Fall protection includes safety harnesses that are fitted with a lifeline and securely attached to a
structural member of the crane or building or properly secured safety nets.
Use of a crane as a work platform should only be considered when conventional means of
reaching an elevated worksite are hazardous or not possible. Workers shall not ride a moving
bridge crane without an approval from the Safety Office, which shall specify the following as a
minimum:
• Personnel shall not board any bridge crane unless the main disconnect switch is
locked and tagged open.
• Personnel shall not use bridge cranes without a permanent platform (catwalk) as work
platforms. Bridge catwalks shall have a permanent ladder access.
• Personnel shall ride seated on the floor of a permanent platform with approved safety
handrails, wear safety harnesses attached to designated anchors, and be in clear view
of the crane operator at all times. Safety St. Louis
• Operators shall lock and tag open the main (or power) disconnect switch on the
bridge catwalk when the crane is parked.
Hand Signals Safety St. Louis
Signals to the operator shall be in accordance with the standard hand signals unless voice
communications equipment (telephone, radio, or equivalent) is used. Signals shall be discernible
or audible at all times. Some special operations may require addition to or modification of the
basic signals. For all such cases, these special signals shall be agreed upon and thoroughly
understood by both the person giving the signals and the operator, and shall not be in conflict
with the standard signals.
Inspection, Maintenance, and Testing
All tests and inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.
Monthly Tests and Inspections
• All in-service cranes and hoists shall be inspected monthly and the results documented on
specific company form and kept in location .
• Defective cranes and hoists shall be locked and tagged "out of service" until all defects
are corrected. The inspector shall initiate corrective action by notifying the facility
manager or building coordinator.
Annual Inspections
The employer representative will schedule and supervise (or perform) annual preventive
maintenance (PM) and annual inspections of all cranes and hoists. The annual PM and inspection
shall cover
• Hoisting and lowering mechanisms.
• Trolley travel or monorail travel.
• Bridge travel.
• Limit switches and locking and safety devices.
• Structural members.
• Bolts or rivets.
• Sheaves and drums.
• Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking devices, and clamping devices.
• Brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
• Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range.
• Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants.
• Chain-drive sprockets. Safety St. Louis
• Crane and hoist hooks.
• Electrical apparatus such as controller contractors, limit switches, and push button
stations.
• Wire rope.
• Hoist chains.
Load Testing
• Newly installed cranes and hoists shall be load tested at 125% of the rated capacity by
designated personnel.
• Slings shall have appropriate test data when purchased. It is the responsibility of the
purchaser to ensure that the appropriate test data are obtained and maintained.
• Re-rated cranes and hoists shall be load tested to 125% of the new capacity if the new
rating is greater than the previous rated capacity.
• Fixed cranes or hoists that have had major modifications or repair shall be load tested to
125% of the rated capacity.
• Cranes and hoists that have been overloaded shall be inspected prior to being returned to
service. Safety St. Louis
• Personnel platforms, baskets, and rigging suspended from a crane or hoist hook shall be
load tested initially, then re-tested annually thereafter or at each new job site.
• All cranes and hoists with a capacity greater than 2722 kg (3 tons) should be load tested
every four years to 125% of the rated capacity. Cranes and hoists with a lesser capacity
should be load tested every eight years to 125% of the rated capacity.
• All mobile hoists shall be load tested at intervals to be determined by [ ].
Records Safety St. Louis
Employer representative will maintain records for all cranes, hoist and rigging equipment.
References
ASME/ANSI B30.2, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or Multiple
Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.9, "Slings."
ASME/ANSI B30.10, "Hooks." Safety St. Louis
ASME/ANSI B30.11, "Monorails and Underhung Cranes."
ASME/ANSI B30.16, "Overhead Hoists (Underhung)."
ASME/ANSI B30.17, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder,
Underhung Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.20, "Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices."
ASME/ANSI B30.21, "Manually Lever Operated Hoists." Safety St. Louis
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.179, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.184, "Slings."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1926.550, "Cranes and Derricks."
Mechanical Engineering Department Design Safety Standards, Chapter 2.2, "Lifting equipment."
CMAA Specification No. 70, Specifications for Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes.
CMAA Specification No. 74, Specifications for Top-Running and Under-Running Single-Girder
Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoist.
NFPA 70, Article 610, Cranes and Hoists. Safety St. Louis